Japan experience in reducing the risk of natural disasters in buildings
In order to bring the country's development to a new level, good reforms are being carried out in all spheres, including science and education. The "Strategy for the further development of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2017-2021", initiated by President Sh. Mirziyoev, also focuses on education, including support for young, talented scientists, creating favorable conditions for their research, exchange of experience with developed countries and co-operation in training.
As a result of the above mentioned opinion, the young scientist in technical sciences, PhD Yuvmitov Anvar Sayfullaevich, by the official invitation of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) attended the training course on "Disaster Risk Reduction in Buildings (Earthquake, Tsunami and Firefighting)" from June 27 to July 27 in Tokyo. We have asked him to share with his impressions with us.
- Anvar Sayfullaevich, you have participated in a seminar training in Japan. What was the main purpose of the training seminar?
- The main purpose of the seminar was to study Japan's experience in reducing the risk of earthquakes, tsunami, fire and tornado disasters, as well as the potential threat to human life.
- What other experts from your country participated in the seminar?
- The training course was attended by leading experts in architecture and construction from India, Bhutan, Philippines, Nepal, Mayanmar and El Salvador.
- As you know, the seismic resistance of the buildings and structures, their natural disaster relief are an important factor. This is especially important for Japan, where earthquakes occur frequently. Tell us, how do they do?
- Of course, Japan is located in a seismically active area. Overall, there were three major earthquakes in the history of Japan. The first of them was the earthquake of Great Kanto in 1923, and the whole city was burnt. The latter was the Great Hansin-Avadian earthquake in 1995 in Kobe, Japan, which led to the collapse of many buildings and major economic losses. The third most severe earthquake was the Great East Japan earthquake in the east coast of Honsu Island in 2011, after a powerful earthquake and tsunami destroyed the whole city. The Japanese government has adopted a government program to introduce new developments to address such losses and disasters and to take action to cure significant consequences. Currently, research is being carried out on these issues in research institutes. In Japan, demo drivers and actuators have been used to reduce the risk of earthquakes. There are currently 8,539 active seismic protection buildings in the country.
- You mentioned the tsunami. What modern technological developments are used to reduce the risk of natural disaster in Japan?
- "First of all, the tsunami is a terrible natural disaster. As I said above, the Japanese government's economic loss in 2011 caused tsunami in Honsy Island and resulted in many casualties. The Japanese Government has developed an action plan to prevent this disaster. It was noted that in order to inform the tsunami risk in advance, the system of the Internet connected to sensitive sensors in the seaside and ocean regions has been set up, and that the system can provide people with the opportunity to evacuate them from time to time. In order to prevent the tsunami disaster in several cities of Japan, the following measures have been taken:
- In the tsunami, steel concrete pillars were built on the first floor of the buildings and structures in order to reduce the water pressure and prevent water flow;
- Designed for distribution of buildings and structures along the coastal zone;
- strategically important objects located along the coastal plains;
- In artificial hills built in cities to evacuate and save lives during the tsunami, and so on.
Based on the experience, it was discovered that the iron-concrete constructions and buildings were the most prominent during the tsunami.
Also, for the Japanese, fire is one of the most common causes of disaster. The effects of a fire disaster affect many buildings and people's lives and health. Due to wood industry in Japan, wooden building is used as the main building material in most residential buildings. At the same time, skyscrapers have been built in central cities, with their cargo-carrying structures consisting of steel and reinforced concrete products. One of the most important and urgent issues is the fire safety measures in these buildings.
- What cities have you visited in order to get acquainted with the field research?
- We have been to scientific centers operating in Kobe, Kyoto and Tsukuba, Japan, and have been acquainted with a number of activities to get acquainted with the current research work with the participants of the training course.
When we were at the Institute for Building Research at Tsukuba, we got acquainted with the research work carried out on the fire-extinguishing of building constructions. According to it, the invention of a special asbestos granule was invented. It is their heat, when steel structures are covered with 10 cm thickness up to 3.5 hours. Length in the test laboratory 6m wide steel burner with special fireproof coating. We have seen how he is fitted to a fire-extinguisher camera and tested for fire-fighting tests.
The participants of the training got acquainted with the construction of multistoried buildings on the streets of Tokyo and on the streets of Toranomon and Shinagawa. We witnessed the above-mentioned earthquake and fire prevention measures in these buildings.
- Who was the seminar-trainer, and which of them would you emphasize?
- The seminar was conducted by the most well-known scientists and experts of Japan. Among them, Dr. Narafu, Professor Sunoxara, Ishiyama, Saito, Tamura, Okazaki Kerji, Kobayashi and doctors Mukay, Xasegava, Ivami, Naoki, Yokoi, Khayashida, Fuji, Kiuchi and others.
To me, Dr. Narafu, Training Coordinator Shoji Michiko, Program Officer Kamey Chixira, Mrs. Sato, Ms. Tearaway, Taguchi and other Japanese JICA representatives, who helped me with a very enjoyable study in Japan for a month, I express my deep gratitude to the Tashkent Institute of Architecture and Construction.
- Anvar Sayfullaevich! Thank you for your meaningful conversation. I wish the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to further strengthen the relations between our countries.
- Thank you too. In conclusion, I am convinced that the knowledge gained from JICA's training course will serve as an important factor in building the country's construction industry.